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1. Principal activities

The Center for the Study of Democracy (hereafter "CSD" or the "Center") is an independent not for profit, public policy research organization founded in late 1989.

Its main activities are concentrated in the organization and operation of programs including economic, law reform, sociological, information resources and ethnic relations aiming at speeding up the market oriented development of the Bulgarian economy and democratization of the Bulgarian society. The programs are financed by West European and American not for profit organizations, governmental institutions and private companies such as American Bar Association, Center for International Private Enterprise (U.S.A.), Commission of the European Communities, Council of Europe, C. S. Mott Foundation, Manns Seidel Foundation (Germany), International Center for Economic Growth, International Development Law Institute (Italy), US Agency for International Development and World Bank.

Other activities include publishing of materials and distribution.

2. Principal Accounting Policies

CSD's accounting policies are established in compliance with theAccountancy Act, the National Accounting Standards, and the United States Circular A-133 Standard concerning "grants and agreements with Institutions of Higher education, Hospitals and other Nonprofit Organizations", as well as with the requirements set under Standard A-122 (Cost Principles for Nonprofit Organizations).

Revenue recognition

The Center's revenue arises from its activities relating to projects financed by third parties. The activity can be divided into the following types:

  • restricted funds, representing funding for specific projects; and
  • unrestricted funds for general expenditures and maintenance.

Project revenue is recognized based upon stipulations and duration of the contract with the organization requesting the project. Project revenue can be recognized upon completion of a stage in the project or upon completion of the project and submission of the final report.

At the end of the each year a review of each project is performed. Amounts received in excess of the estimated work performed are deferred and disclosed in the balance sheet as part of deferred revenue. The estimate of work performed in excess of the amounts received are recorded as project receivables and disclosed as part of prepayments at the balance sheet date.

Revenue earned from the act of publishing and distributing of books is recognized at the point of sale.


The CSD is a not for profit organisation and is exempt from corporate taxation on its not for profit activities. In addition the Center is exempt from VAT on its not for profit activities.

2. Principal Accounting Policies

Foreign currency

Transactions in other currencies have been translated into Bulgarian Leva at the rate of exchange ruling at the date of the transaction. Monetary assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies at the balance sheet date are translated into Bulgarian Leva at the exchange rate ruling at that date. All resulting exchange differences are recognised in arriving at the result for the year and are disclosed in other income (expense). Foreign currency accounts are maintained manually using the FIFO method.

USD to Leva foreign exchange rates were the following for the respective periods:

At 31.12.199332,711
At 31.12.199466,015
Average for 199327,5
Average for 199455

Inflation accounting

Consistent with other entities operating in Bulgaria International Accounting Standard No 29 "Financial Reporting in Hyper-inflationary Economics" has not been applied despite the hyper-inflationary environment, as defined by IAS 29, in Bulgaria. The annualized rate of inflation for 1994 was 121.9% (1993 63.9%).

Certain balances and amounts in 1993 have been reclassified to conform with the disclosures in the 1994 accounts.

3. Other income

Other income for the period included the following:

Foreign exchange gains6,7952,5069,301
Foreign exchange losses(51)(1,109)(1,160)
Interest income291-291
Interest expense(83)-(83)
Investment income230-230

Investment income primarily represents amounts received from its activity with Radio Vitosha. The Center participates in the ownership of Radio Vitosha and had the following activity:

  • Initial contribution for a radio licence;
  • Payments of annual government and licence fees;

The transactions are accounted for as long term investments with the exception of advances for the payment of some current expenses which are recorded as receivables. As a result of the Center's involvement in the radio's operations, the Center received a contribution of Leva 230,000 which has been accounted for as revenue.

4. Cash at bank and in hand

 1994 Leva '0001993 Leva '000
Deposits-foreign currency6,677-
Cash at bank-foreign currency8,8203,880
Cash at bank-Leva962195
Cash in hand-foreign currency24331
Cash in hand-Leva5712

Deposits represent amounts held by utility entities and other institutions which can converted to cash in a relatively short period of time.

5. Receivables

 1994 Leva '0001993 Leva '000
Advances to suppliers1,4381,505
Investment receivable230-
Project receivable3,020-

6. Tangible fixed assets

The Center acquires its fixed assets through purchases with its own funds or by obtaining the fixed assets upon the completion of projects. Assets are valued on the basis of acquisition cost and are shown at cost less accumulated depreciation. Depreciation is charged on a straight-line basis and the following rates are applied:

Machinery and equipment20%
Office furniture and equipment25%

The activity for tangible fixed assets for 1994 is as follows:

 1994 Leva '000
Cost or valuation
At 1 January 19942,745
At 31 December 19945,436
Charge for the year1,978
At 31 December 19941,978
Net book value
At 31 December 19943,458

7. Long-term liabilities

 1994 Leva '0001993 Leva '000
Deferred capital subsidies5951,399

8. Reconciliation between local statutory reporting and these financial statements

 Leva '000
Surplus for the year per local statutory reporting12,910
Adjustments for recognition of unrealized gains (losses) on amounts held in foreign currency as follows:
Surplus per IAS financial statements13,855

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