The current report focuses on the illicit tobacco market and the effectiveness of law enforcement against it in four EU countries along the Balkan route – Bulgaria, Italy, Greece and Romania. Having been affected by both illegal production and illegal trade, these countries face a number of vulnerabilities and threats in their capacities for effective law enforcement. In order to measure and design methods for improving these capacities, the study analyses two comprehensive datasets – the data collected by the tobacco industry on illicit consumption and the institutional data on seizures of illicit cigarettes. The result are several innovative instruments for assessing the illegal cigarette market, as well as police performance and corruption vulnerabilities in law enforcement and revenue agencies.
The Illicit Cigarette Trade along the Balkan Route: Measuring Vulnerabilities and Threats