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Hidden Economy in Southeast Europe: Building Regional Momentum to Mitigate its Negative Effects
According to the authors of the policy brief, not declaring in full or partially economic activities in SEE remains widespread in virtually all areas of government – permissions and licenses, labour contracts, social security, taxes and custom duties. It signals a persistent gap between formal and informal institutions and lack of coherent enforcement of rules. Corruption pressure is higher towards those engaged in the hidden economy. At the same time their susceptibility to corruption is also higher, confirming the institutional incongruence. The immense diversity of the scale (from 19 % in Croatia to 81 % in Kosovo), prevailing patterns (no written contracts in Turkey, non-payment of health care contributions in Kosovo*, envelope wages in FYR of Macedonia and Bulgaria, non-formalised business in Albania), formal vs informal wage average (higher formal wages in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Albania and Turkey and lower in Kosovo and Bulgaria) requires country specific tailor-made policies and sequencing of reforms. more »
 
Hidden Economy and Good Governance in Southeast Europe Regional Assessment Report
The current report examines the key drivers of the hidden economy and its impact on the overall economy in SEE, and in particular the employment, social and fiscal sectors. The authors focus on the links between hidden economy and corruption, especially the administrative corruption, related to VAT drain, tax payment evasion, social security payment evasion, and “speeding up” business related services. They propose new approaches for measuring and analysing the phenomena, as well as preventive and counter-measures. more »
 
CSD Policy Brief No. 64: Hidden Economy in Bulgaria: 2015 – 2016
In Bulgaria the high level of hidden economy undermines the economic development of the country and requires serious and persistent political attention. The unprecedented growth in the field of digitization of economic activities, the convergence between some of them, and the emergence of brand new services creates an opportunity for achieving a desirable environment, which may reduce the hidden cash flows and boost the economic development of the country. Comprehensive reforms focused on the functioning of the market mechanisms and administrative effectiveness are needed in order to promote the process of economic convergence within the European Union and limit the harmful effects of the hidden economy in Bulgaria. more »
 
Hidden Economy Indexes in Bulgaria 2002-2015: Results and Methodological Notes
The current document presents the methodology for calculation of the Hidden Economy Indexes in Bulgaria among the population and the business, as well as the results of the surveys for the period 2002-2015. more »
 
Monitoring the Hidden Economy in Macedonia: Trends and Policy Options
The current report proposes a methodology that would allow the tracing of the dynamics of the hidden economy and its components (e.g. hidden turnover, hidden employment, etc.) over time. This would make possible for the Macedonian government and its European partners to follow the impact and assess the effectiveness of their policies for tackling the hidden economy. more »
 
Background Analysis on the Spread and Trends of Hidden Economy in Macedonia
The analysis involves a review of existing reports and data on the hidden economy in Macedonia as well as the available international sources. It reviews the current policy initiatives and whether these have been evaluated, as well as any planned future initiatives. more »
 
Hidden Economy in Macedonia Policy Brief 3: Hunting the Shadows – Tax Evasion Dynamics in Macedonia
The current policy brief stresses that as a middle-income country, which is still reforming its tax authority, tax system and related measures against tax evasion and fraud, one can reasonably assume that Macedonia should expect rate of tax evasion and fraud of at least 7.9% of GDP or about 700 mln. EUR on an annual basis. more »
 
Hidden Economy in Macedonia Policy Brief 2: Hit and Miss - The Dynamics of Undeclared Labor in Macedonia
The current policy brief underlines that undeclared work, being one of the main manifestations of hidden economy, becomes the bull’s-eye for many countries focusing on reshaping their social and economic policies in order to tackle this issue, especially since the onset of the economic crisis that hit Europe and the World in 2008. more »
 
Hidden Economy in Macedonia Policy Brief 1: The Economics of Blurs and Shadows – The Hidden Economy in Macedonia
The current policy brief provides an overview of the hidden economy in Macedonia, including some of its main causes and consequences. At the same time, it offers a macroeconomic overview of the characteristics considered to favor the prevalence of the hidden economy, while outlining the basic definitions and different hidden economy measurement methods. Furthermore, it reviews the latest policy developments in Macedonia in the area of hidden economy and delivers an outline of where this phenomenon is headed and what measures are, and should be taken, to tackle it. more »
 
GREY Working Paper No. 4: Policy Approaches Towards Undeclared Work, a Conceptual Framework
The aim of this working paper is to provide a conceptual framework for understanding the policy approaches for tackling undeclared work. In doing so, the intention is to provide the structure for a future comprehensive review of the policy measures available for tackling undeclared work. more »
 

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