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Publications

Bulgarian Organised Crime Threat Assessment
The 2017 Bulgarian Organised Crime Threat Assessment uncovers the major trends and dynamics in the country’s main criminal markets during the last several years. The current analysis indicates shrinking of traditionally robust criminal areas, such as the illegal trade in cigarettes and organised VAT fraud, while the illegal trade in fuels and the use and distribution of marijuana are experiencing growth. more »
 
CSD Policy Brief No. 80: The Illicit Trade of Tobacco Products along the Balkan Route – Bulgaria, Greece, Italy and Romania
Bulgaria and Romania have long traditions in illicit tobacco trade rooted in the hardships of their transitions to market economy. Unlike them, Greece and Italy enjoyed lower levels of illicit tobacco consumption, which however changed with the arrival of the global economic crisis in 2009. Thus by 2012 illicit market soared from 2.2 % up to 8.5 % in Italy and from 2 % up to 10 % in Greece. more »
 
CSD Policy Brief No. 78: Trafficking for Sexual Exploitation in Bulgaria: Criminal Finances and Capacity for Financial Investigations
Trafficking in human beings (THB) for the purpose of sexual exploitation has become one of the largest Bulgarian criminal markets since the beginning of the new millennium. After the lifting of Schengen visas for Bulgarian nationals in 2001, Bulgaria became a major country of origin for the trafficking in human beings exploited in the EU. THB and prostitution not only generate huge incomes for Bulgarian organised crime but also have detrimental social and economic impact on local communities. more »
 
CSD Policy Brief No. 75: The Tobacco Market in Bulgaria: Trends and Risks
The illicit tobacco market is one of the key sources of revenue for organized crime in Bulgaria. During the economic turmoil in 2009-2014 the annual proceeds from this criminal activity have reached between 0.5% and 1% of the country's GDP. At the same time the budget revenues from tobacco taxation (both excise and VAT) contribute for 9 and 10% per year of the overall tax revenues in Bulgaria. more »
 
Cross-border organised crime: Bulgaria and Norway in the Context of the Migrant Crisis
The irregular migrant and refugee crisis poses serious challenges for Europe. The unprecedented migration pressure presents an opportunity for the generation of substantial profits by organised criminal networks. The large influx of irregular migrants looking for facilitation has led to the development of human smuggling as a substantial criminal market in Europe. On the other hand, some countries have experienced a concurrent rise in human trafficking cases. more »
 
CSD Policy Brief No. 63: Extortion racketeering: the vulnerability assessment approach
Extortion racketeering has long been pointed out as the defining activity of organised crime. It has also been identified as one of the most effective tools used by organised crime in the accumulation of financial resources and the penetration of the legal economy. Although in recent years this crime has not been among the top listed organised crime threats in the strategic EU policy documents, it still remains ever present in European countries. The seriousness of the phenomenon has been recognised at the EU level and the crime has been listed in a number of EU legal acts in the field of police and judicial cooperation in criminal matters. more »
 
Countering extortion racketeering: The Italian Experience
Extortion racketeering is a crime which spans all sections of society, poses threats to the well-being of local communities and impairs the growth and development of business. No country is immune to it, although it varies across time, space and economic context. Extortion can be perpetrated by single offenders, or it can be part of more complex criminal schemes. In this sense, the case of Italy is typical because Italian mafias systematically resort to extortion racketeering. more »
 
Illegal Entrepreneurship, Organized Crime and Social Control
This book covers organized crime groups, empirical studies of organized crime, criminal finances and money laundering, and crime prevention, gathering some of the most authoritative and well-known scholars in the field. The contributions to this book are new chapters written in honor of Professor Dick Hobbs, on the occasion of his retirement. more »
 
Extortion racketeering in the EU: vulnerability factors
Extortion racketeering has been long pointed out as the “defining activity of organised crime” (Konrad & Skaperdas, 1998). Although in recent years this crime has not been among the top listed organised crime threats in the strategic EU policy documents, it still remains ever present in European countries. more »
 
Integrated report on corruption and trafficking in women
Trafficking in human beings for sexual exploitation is a criminal business of transnational nature, ranking third after narcotics and arms trafficking in generating huge amounts of illegal profit. THB in all its manifestations is a dangerous crime that results in significant psychological, emotional, financial and often physical harm to victims, representing a serious violation of human rights. Despite the seriousness of the crime, law enforcement and criminal justice authorities across the world encounter various problems in investigating and punishing perpetrators. One important barrier is corruption, which – as with other criminal enterprises – is a significant facilitating mechanism. more »
 

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