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Publications

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CSD Policy Brief No. 80: The Illicit Trade of Tobacco Products along the Balkan Route – Bulgaria, Greece, Italy and Romania
Bulgaria and Romania have long traditions in illicit tobacco trade rooted in the hardships of their transitions to market economy. Unlike them, Greece and Italy enjoyed lower levels of illicit tobacco consumption, which changed with the arrival of the global economic crisis in 2009. Thus by 2012 illicit market soared from 2.2 % up to 8.5 % in Italy and from 2 % up to 10 % in Greece. The economic crisis have also led to sharp increase in illicit tobacco consumption in Bulgaria and Romania as well. However, while Bulgaria and Italy managed to stifle the illicit market, Greece and Romania continue to face high levels of counterfeit and contraband cigarettes. more »
 
CSD Policy Brief No. 78: Trafficking for Sexual Exploitation in Bulgaria: Criminal Finances and Capacity for Financial Investigations
Trafficking in human beings (THB) for the purpose of sexual exploitation has become one of the largest Bulgarian criminal markets since the beginning of the new millennium. After the lifting of Schengen visas for Bulgarian nationals in 2001, Bulgaria became a major country of origin for the trafficking in human beings exploited in the EU. THB and prostitution not only generate huge incomes for Bulgarian organised crime but also have detrimental social and economic impact on local communities. more »
 
Private Sector Corruption in Bulgaria
The analysis is one of the first attempts to explore the phenomenon of private corruption in Bulgaria. A methodology (Private corruption barometer) has been developed and applied to assess levels of prevalence and specific characteristics of corruption in the private sector. The problem of private corruption is relatively new in terms of research practice as the prevailing view of corruption is that it is a governance problem and does not strictly apply to private sector management. Private corruption barometer data show that the practices and mechanisms observed in the private sector are very similar to the overall corruption situation in the country and should therefore not be neglected. more »
 
CSD Policy Brief No. 76: The Management of Frozen and Forfeited Assets in Bulgaria
Civil forfeiture of illegally acquired assets is one of the most important tools in the fight against crime. Forfeiture is used by state authorities to strip criminals of their illicit proceeds, thereby preventing them from expanding illegal activities and reinvesting their proceeds into the legal economy. A secondary benefit of forfeiture is that forfeited property, or the proceeds of its sale, may be used to provide specialised services for the benefit of victims of crime. more »
 
CSD Policy Brief No. 75: The Tobacco Market in Bulgaria: Trends and Risks
The illicit tobacco market is one of the key sources of revenue for organized crime in Bulgaria. During the economic turmoil in 2009-2014 the annual proceeds from this criminal activity have reached between 0.5% and 1% of the country's GDP. At the same time the budget revenues from tobacco taxation (both excise and VAT) contribute for 9 and 10% per year of the overall tax revenues in Bulgaria. more »
 
Cross-border organised crime: Bulgaria and Norway in the Context of the Migrant Crisis
The irregular migrant and refugee crisis poses serious challenges for Europe. The unprecedented migration pressure presents an opportunity for the generation of substantial profits by organised criminal networks. The large influx of irregular migrants looking for facilitation has led to the development of human smuggling as a substantial criminal market in Europe. On the other hand, some countries have experienced a concurrent rise in human trafficking cases. more »
 
Whose responsibility? Reflections on accountability of private security in Southeast Europe
Private security companies (PSCs) play an increasingly important role in the security sector of most countries in Europe and elsewhere. As providers of security services, PSCs and their activities have a direct impact on security, human rights and a country’s democratic order. It is therefore in the interest of the public that PSCs are effectively regulated and accountable for alleged wrongdoings. more »
 
The Role of the Internet in People Smuggling and Human Trafficking
This report presents the results of project 'www.surfandsound.eu - Improving and sharing knowledge on the Internet role in the human trafficking process' (hereafter referred to as 'Surf and Sound', coordinated by eCrime, the research group on ICT, law and criminology of the Department 'Faculty of Law' of the University of Trento, in partnership with the Center for the Study of Democracy (Bulgaria) and Teesside University (United Kingdom). more »
 
Risks of Islamist Radicalisation in Bulgaria: A Case Study in the Iztok Neighbourhood of the City of Pazardzhik
In the context of the escalation of extremist Islamist violence in many EC countries today, the issue of the risks of home grown Islamist radicalization in Bulgaria is the subject of heated public debates. Preventing and studying (Islamist) radicalization has become a priority in Europe, giving rise to wealth of publications that explore its motives and causes as well as the processes whereby individuals and groups come to espouse extremist ideas and engage in violent actions. Such studies are lacking in Bulgaria while worries about the potential influence that international terrorist organisations and the related Islamist extremist ideologies could exert in the country are rising. more »
 
Situational Assessment of Extremist Trends
Violent extremism is one of the major challenges Europe is currently facing. The threat is both external as well as internal as indicated by the rise in home-grown Islamist terrorists, as well as of nationalistic and anti-immigrant movements and far-right aggression. An accurate picture of the spread, nature and trends in the extremist and terrorist activity and actors is paramount to formulating strategic policy approaches and effectively allocating available resources. This publication provides a methodological framework for the establishment of a viable mechanism for monitoring and assessment of the state and developments over time in extremist acts and actors on the national level. more »
 

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