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Publications

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Private Sector Corruption in Bulgaria
The analysis is one of the first attempts to explore the phenomenon of private corruption in Bulgaria. A methodology (Private corruption barometer) has been developed and applied to assess levels of prevalence and specific characteristics of corruption in the private sector. The problem of private corruption is relatively new in terms of research practice as the prevailing view of corruption is that it is a governance problem and does not strictly apply to private sector management. Private corruption barometer data show that the practices and mechanisms observed in the private sector are very similar to the overall corruption situation in the country and should therefore not be neglected. more »
 
CSD Policy Brief No. 76: The Management of Frozen and Forfeited Assets in Bulgaria
Civil forfeiture of illegally acquired assets is one of the most important tools in the fight against crime. Forfeiture is used by state authorities to strip criminals of their illicit proceeds, thereby preventing them from expanding illegal activities and reinvesting their proceeds into the legal economy. A secondary benefit of forfeiture is that forfeited property, or the proceeds of its sale, may be used to provide specialised services for the benefit of victims of crime. more »
 
CSD Policy Brief No. 75: The Tobacco Market in Bulgaria: Trends and Risks
The illicit tobacco market is one of the key sources of revenue for organized crime in Bulgaria. During the economic turmoil in 2009-2014 the annual proceeds from this criminal activity have reached between 0.5% and 1% of the country's GDP. At the same time the budget revenues from tobacco taxation (both excise and VAT) contribute for 9 and 10% per year of the overall tax revenues in Bulgaria. more »
 
Cross-border organised crime: Bulgaria and Norway in the Context of the Migrant Crisis
The irregular migrant and refugee crisis poses serious challenges for Europe. The unprecedented migration pressure presents an opportunity for the generation of substantial profits by organised criminal networks. The large influx of irregular migrants looking for facilitation has led to the development of human smuggling as a substantial criminal market in Europe. On the other hand, some countries have experienced a concurrent rise in human trafficking cases. more »
 
Whose responsibility? Reflections on accountability of private security in Southeast Europe
Private security companies (PSCs) play an increasingly important role in the security sector of most countries in Europe and elsewhere. As providers of security services, PSCs and their activities have a direct impact on security, human rights and a country’s democratic order. It is therefore in the interest of the public that PSCs are effectively regulated and accountable for alleged wrongdoings. more »
 
Risks of Islamist Radicalisation in Bulgaria: A Case Study in the Iztok Neighbourhood of the City of Pazardzhik
In the context of the escalation of extremist Islamist violence in many EC countries today, the issue of the risks of home grown Islamist radicalization in Bulgaria is the subject of heated public debates. Preventing and studying (Islamist) radicalization has become a priority in Europe, giving rise to wealth of publications that explore its motives and causes as well as the processes whereby individuals and groups come to espouse extremist ideas and engage in violent actions. Such studies are lacking in Bulgaria while worries about the potential influence that international terrorist organisations and the related Islamist extremist ideologies could exert in the country are rising. more »
 
Situational Assessment of Extremist Trends
Violent extremism is one of the major challenges Europe is currently facing. The threat is both external as well as internal as indicated by the rise in home-grown Islamist terrorists, as well as of nationalistic and anti-immigrant movements and far-right aggression. An accurate picture of the spread, nature and trends in the extremist and terrorist activity and actors is paramount to formulating strategic policy approaches and effectively allocating available resources. This publication provides a methodological framework for the establishment of a viable mechanism for monitoring and assessment of the state and developments over time in extremist acts and actors on the national level. more »
 
Monitoring Radicalisation: A Framework for Risk Indicators
Radicalisation processes impacting on disaffected and indoctrinated persons and the later involvement of some of them in acts of terrorism are of growing concern for European citizens, their governments and the wider international community. Addressing this threat requires effective prevention policies which some EU member states have been proactive in developing. Effective policies need reliable diagnostic tools designed to identify individuals and groups who might pose a threat. more »
 
Radicalisation in Bulgaria: Threats and Trends
The phenomena of radicalisation today develop and change at high speed, with their extreme forms manifested globally. The destructive dimensions of (violent) Islamist or right-wing radicalisation have become dramatically visible in Europe posing serious challenges to European societies at large. more »
 
CSD Policy Brief No. 68: Monitoring Radicalisation and Extremism
Over the last decade, radicalisation and extremism have become issues of particular concern for Europe. New risks of Islamist and far-right radicalisation have impelled the introduction of policies, the effects of which are only now being evaluated. As radicalisation that risks escalating into violence is more amenable to prevention than repression, having the capacity to detect early warning signs and trace the spread of extremist activity over time is critical. more »
 

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